A lot, apparently.
Credit Card Compare (now finty.com) created a world map showing the translation of each country's name and it's fascinating. For example, did you know Canada means, "The Village?" And while some countries like El Salvador (the Savior) might be easy to figure out, Spain's "The Land of Many Rabbits" might be a little less obvious.
This graphic will pixelate if you zoom in, but if you head over to finty's site, you can see the map broken out into regions. You can even download high resolution PDFs of the entire map and individual regions.
I don't know that this map is available as a print but if it is, I want!